張徹 | CHANG Cheh

Film is an art form that came from the West but Chinese film should have a Chinese tradition and Hong Kong is a confluence of these factors. Of course, survival of the Chinese tradition would not depend on Hong Kong film, but those who are best in using the Chinese tradition are the relatively modernized Hong Kong filmmakers, such as King Hu, Li Han-hsiang, myself, Bruce Lee, Jackie Chan and Sammo Hung. That’s because tradition needs to integrate with modernity. In the past 30 years or so, Hong Kong filmmakers had developed capabilities that are equal to foreigners. This is very helpful for China’s modernization. For the future of Chinese cinema (referring to both sides of the Strait), the accomplishment of Hong Kong film in the past 30 years should not be neglected. Without Hong Kong films, Mainland Chinese cinema would have to repeat the integration of tradition and modernity that Hong Kong had experienced.

-- From Chang Cheh, Looking Back at Thirty Years of Hong Kong Film, Joint Publishing, 1989, p. 149-150 (translated).


Born in 1924 in Hangzhou, China, Chang Cheh attended university during WWII in Chongqing, where he was involved in theater. Returning to Shanghai after the war, he worked as a scriptwriter. In 1948, he was sent to Taiwan as co-director of Storm Over Ali Shan (1950) and wrote the theme song for the film, a huge hit that went on to become a folk song of perennial popularity. He remained in Taiwan after the Communist revolution in China, working for the Nationalist government while remaining active in theater and scriptwriting.

Chang was invited to Hong Kong in 1957 by actress Li Mei to script and co-direct her film Wild Fires (1958), after which he stayed, writing novels and film reviews. He joined MP&GI in 1961 as a scriptwriter, later switching to Shaw Brothers. There, he was able to again direct and his first works Tiger Boy (1966) and Magnificent Trio (1966) quickly established a new direction for the martial arts genre. He followed with One Armed Swordsman (1967), which became a huge hit and vitalized the largely womenoriented and slow-paced Mandarin cinema. Highly efficient and prolific, he turned out a series of mostly popular martial arts films in the 1960s and 1970s, forging an influential and enduring redefinition of Hong Kong action films. Ushering in a new era of youth and masculinity, he discovered and groomed a whole generation new stars, among them Jimmy Wang Yu, Lo Lieh, Ti Lung, John Chiang, Alexander Fu Sheng, Danny Lee, Chan Koon-tai, Leung Ka-yan. Chang also mentored a new generation of young directors and martial arts choreographers who went on to local and international fame, including John Woo, Lau Karleung, Kuei Chih-hung and Wu Ma.

With Shaws’s support, he formed Chang’s Co. in 1974, producing films in Taiwan. Continuing to direct upon returning to Hong Kong in 1976, he made a series of adaptations of author Louis Cha’s novels. Chang was also among the first Hong Kong filmmakers to make films in China, starting with the 1986 effort Great Shanghai 1937.

Chang was honored by the Hong Kong Film Directors’ Guild in 1992 and given the Lifetime Achievement Award by the Hong Kong Film Awards in 2002. He passed away in 2002 at age 78.

Year Chinese name English name Directors
1993 《神通》
Ninja in the Ancient China
1991 《西行平妖》
Journey to the West
1990 《西安殺戮》
The Slaughter in Xian
1990 《江湖奇兵》
Hidden Hero
1988 《過江》
Across The River
1986 《大上海1937》
Great Shanghai 1937
1984 《九子天魔》
The Nine Demons
1984 《擂台》
Death Ring
1984 《霹靂情》
The Dancing Warrior
1983 《神通術與小霸王》
The Weird Man
1983 《上海灘十三太保》
Shanghai 13
1983 《撞鬼》
The Ghost
1982 《沖霄樓》
House Of Traps
1982 《神鵰俠侶》
The Brave Archer and His Mate
1982 《五遁忍術》
Five Element Ninjas
1982 《俠客行》
Ode To Gallantry
1981 《碧血劍》
The Sword Stained With Royal Blood
1981 《叉手》
Masked Avengers
1981 《射鵰英雄傳第三集》
The Brave Archer Part III
1980 《第三類打鬥》
Heaven and Hell LAU Kar Leung
1980 《少林與武當》
Two Champions Of Shaolin
1980 《鐵旗門》
The Flag of Iron
1980 《大殺四方》
The Rebel Intruders
1980 《飛狐外傳》
Legend Of The Fox
1980 《廣東十虎與後五虎》
Ten Tigers of Kwantung
1979 《生死門》
Life Gamble
1979 《街市英雄》
Shaolin Rescuers
1979 《雜技亡命隊》
The Daredevils
1979 《賣命小子》
The Magnificent Ruffians
1979 《金臂童》
The Kid With The Golden Arm
1978 《射鵰英雄傳續集》
The Brave Archer 2
1978 《五毒》
The Five Venoms
1978 《南少林與北少林》
Invincible Shaolin
1978 《殘缺》
Crippled Avengers
1977 《海軍突擊隊》
The Naval Commandos PAO Hsueh Li WU Ma
1977 《射鵰英雄傳》
The Brave Archer
1977 《唐人街小子》
Chinatown Kid
1976 《八道樓子》
Seven Man Army WU Ma
1976 《方世玉與胡惠乾》
The Shaolin Avengers WU Ma
1976 《蔡李佛小子》
New Shaolin Boxers WU Ma
1976 《江湖漢子》
Magnificent Wanderers WU Ma
1976 《少林寺》
Shaolin Temple WU Ma
1975 《神拳三壯士》
Boxer Rebellion
1975 《紅孩兒》
The Fantastic Magic Baby
1975 《洪拳小子》
Disciples of Shaolin
1975 《馬哥波羅》
Marco Polo
1974 《方世玉與洪熙官》
Heroes Two
1974 《五虎將》
The Savage Five
1974 《少林子弟》
Men from Monastery
1974 《逃亡》
The Bloody Escape SUEN Chung
1974 《朋友》
1974 《洪拳與詠春》
Shaolin Martial Arts
1974 《哪吒》
Na Cha the Great
1974 《少林五祖》
Five Shaolin Masters
1973 《憤怒青年》
The Delinquent KUEI Chih Hung
1973 《刺馬》
The Blood Brothers
1973 《叛逆》
The Generation Gap
1973 《警察》
Police Force
1973 《大海盜》
The Pirate PAO Hsueh Li WU Ma
1973 《大刀王五》
Iron Bodyguard PAO Hsueh Li
1973 《蕩寇誌》
All Men are Brothers WU Ma
1972 《馬永貞》
The Boxer from Shantung PAO Hsueh Li
1972 《惡客》
The Angry Guest
1972 《水滸傳》
The Water Margin PAO Hsueh Li WU Ma
1972 《群英會》
Trilogy of Swordsmanship CHENG Kang
1972 《年輕人》
Young People
1972 《快活林》
Delightful Forest PAO Hsueh Li
1972 《四騎士》
Four Riders
1972 《仇連環》
Warrior of Steel PAO Hsueh Li
1971 《鷹王》
King Eagle
1971 《新獨臂刀》
The New One-armed Swordsman
1971 《大決鬥》
The Duel
1971 《無名英雄》
The Anonymous Heroes
1971 《拳擊》
Duel of Fists
1971 《雙俠》
The Deadly Duo
1970 《遊俠兒》
Wandering Swordsman
1970 《報仇》
1970 《十三太保》
The Heroic Ones
1970 《小煞星》
The Singing Killer
1969 《大盜歌王》
The Singing Thief
1969 《飛刀手》
The Flying Dagger
1969 《獨臂刀王》
Return of the One-Armed Swordsman
1969 《鐵手無情》
The Invincible Fist
1969 《死角》
Dead End
1969 《保鏢》
Have Sword, Will Travel
1968 《金燕子》
Golden Swallow
1967 《斷腸劍》
The Trail of the Broken Blade
1967 《獨臂刀》
One Armed Swordsman
1967 《大刺客》
The Assassin
1966 《虎俠殲仇》
Tiger Boy
1966 《邊城三俠》
Magnificent Trio
1965 《蝴蝶盃》
The Butterfly Chalice
1958 《野火》
Wild Fires
1950 《阿里山風雲》
Storm Over Ai Li Shan